arylpyridines; atropisomerism; cross-coupling; palladium; Suzuki–Miyaura reaction
Background: Atropisomers are very interesting stereoisomers having axial chirality resulting from restricted rotation around single bonds and are found in various classes of compounds. ortho-Substituted arylpyridines are an important group of them. A regio- and atropselective Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction on 3,4,5-tribromo-2,6-dimethylpyridine was studied.
Results: Reactions with various amounts of ortho-substituted phenylboronic acids with 3,4,5-tribromo-2,6-dimethylpyridine gave a series of mono- di- and triarylpyridine derivatives which allowed to draw conclusions about the order of substitution. Also, the observed selectivity in the case of ortho-methoxyphenylboronic acid suggested an additional metal O-chelation effect in the transition state, apparently not present in the ortho-chloro analogues. The rotational barrier in selected atropisomers was determined on the basis of HT NMR and thermal epimerisation experiments. The structure of most presented atropisomeric derivatives of 2,6-dimethylpyridine was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Racemic chiral, differently substituted atropisomers were also examined by 1H NMR spectroscopy in the presence of a chiral solvating agent.
Conclusion: This regio- and atropselectivity may be generally applicable to other arylpyridine systems. A regio- and atropselective Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling process has been observed, giving an efficient access to a class of atropisomeric compounds. An opposite selectivity using a differently ortho-substituted phenylbornic acid was observed.
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