Potassium gadolinium tungstate nanocrystals doped with holmium ions as candidates for optical imaging

I. Cieślik, T. Bolek, M.J. Woźniak, A. Majchrowski, S. Hirano, A. Budzianowski

Applied Surface Science, 446, 2018, 139-144, ISSN 0169-4332,


  • Holmium-doped monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 nanoparticles were used in the research.
  • Nanoparticles were synthesized by the mechano-chemical method.
  • KGd(WO4)2 is promising for biomedical imaging applications.
  • The cytotoxicity assays of KGW nanoparticles doped with 10% Ho ions were performed.
  • WST-8 shows that material is stable and does not cause toxic effect on J774.1 cells.

Keywords: Nanocrystals; Biomedical; Medical imaging; DICOM


Holmium-doped monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the mechano-chemical method. The structure and morphology of KGW:Ho 10 at.% nanopowders were investigated with the use of X-ray Powder Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Emission and excitation spectra of KGW nanocrystals were also measured using a fluorometer with a xenon lamp and OPO laser source. The influence of nanoparticles of KGW doped with 10 at.% of holmium on the viability of J774.1 mouse BALB/c monocyte macrophage cells was tested by the WST8 assay. Preliminary immunity cell studies demonstrated a high viability of KGW:Ho 10 at%. Hence, these nanoparticles are promising for imaging applications. To characterize and quantify the physical stability of the nanoparticles of KGW:Ho 10 at.% suitable for biomedical applications, nanoparticles of KGW:Ho in the range of 80–200 nm were prepared.